Four Grams

Right after November Sujeet, atul Kapadia or 2012 Kumar hosted the staff startup entrepreneur for a holiday lunch of Mexican food at a Palo Alto, california restaurant. For longer than weeks, the pair the CEO and CTO, of and even respectively a lithiumion battery firm called Envia Systems had awaited an email from main Motors. It was to contain a deal rare to a market newcomer a contract worth tens and possibly plenty of millions of dollars to provide the electric central nervous setup for 2 showcase GM models including the ‘next generation’ Chevy Volt. That said, untested short suppliers virtually in no circumstances get in the entrance door world’s fundamental automakers, which regard them as too risky to have confidence about. In the event all went well, gM was won over by what seemed to be the world’s better lithium ion battery a cell that, should catapult the entrepreneur to a commanding position in the market with a middle class electric auto that traveled 200 miles on a single charge and rid range motorists fussiness that disquieted them about such vehicles. That’s right. GM will have the jump on the ‘highend’ Tesla S, quite good next huge model with that range but one that will cost much more. For Envia, the contract could lead to a IPO that will make one and the other men rich.

Finally, the for a while and with such uncertainty that neither man had even told Envia’s staff impending scientists deal. They could not have said anything, since such news could affect GM’s share price, in the event they felt more confident. Sounds familiar, doesn’t it? Word had leaked across the Envia lab in any event. Nonetheless, an edginess hung over the lunch. Yes, that’s right! Back at Envia, situated across the bay in Newark industrial town, firm employees gathered in the conference room for a regularly scheduled headquarters meeting. That said, kapadia stood before some papers. He said it was the partnership’s 1st licensing deal, one involving the biggest and most prestigious doable customer of all main Motors.

4 grams

GM has accused Envia of misrepresenting its technology. While setting back its ambitions in the potentially gigantic future ‘electriccar’ sector, the startup’s unraveling is a blow for GM as it transitions to a modern regime next week under ‘CEO designate’ Mary Barra. It risks making Envia, several recipient little ministerial grants, another punching bag for critics of US country management funding of advanced battery firms. It’s a well with Kapadia accusing Kumar of fraud and intellectual property theft, envia meanwhile is mired in 2 angry civil suits and the 2 executives are at daggers drawn. Envia was an illusion, alleges Michael Pak, the plaintiff in a IP theft suit against Kumar. You should take it into account. You can sell the entrepreneur and run away, while the illusion is there. Known ‘lithium cobalt oxide’ is much more prone to catching fire; And, made with manganese or even NMC is the safest lithiumion formulations.

For example, what you generaly receive is not a working technology rights to a relatively raw, bench scale patent that must be built up to a TV ad product, when you license an invention from a public lab. Basically, that was what NMC was it needed to be optimized in the lab. Virtually, argonne, or all in all’s NMC composite seemed to be a top candidate to enable an electric automobile that could be open to compete with incumbent economics gasolinefueled vehicles. About a year later, kumar resigned. A well-known reason that is. Pak said in an interview, kumar cited special differences with him, as justification. The 2007 departure was a shock for NanoeXa, which was left in chaos, pak said. My key engineering chap left, with no any notice. Instead should seek employment in another business, pak said, kumar gave assurances that he should not compete with NanoeXa using NMC technology.

Primarily, kumar and a NanoeXa Mike Sinkula, colleague and had in matter of fact intended to form the own lithium ion battery startup. Ok, and now one of the most important parts. They describe holing up immediately at Palo Alto Library, where they was starting to make cellphone send emails, calls and put together a slide deck to raise about 3 dollars million in venture capital to fund a team that should produce a prototype. Their basis pitch was a fresh NMC term sheet that Kumar had negotiated with Argonne. Yes, that’s right! They intended to make a go using the same technology as NanoeXa and in same pursuit market electric automobiles, kumar and Sinkula will not say so publicly for awhile.

Now pay attention please. Kumar and Sinkula were entering the lithiumion battery biz at a rush cusp of inventors and capital to renewable grip generaly and clean energy storage in particular. Oftentimes at the civil labs, MIT, universities, stanford or Berkeley around the globe, attention turned to a modern era when it was thought that the electric automobile could eventually be adapted to mass use. The push coincided with an eagerness by governments and special investment finances to get behind such modern inventions., kumar did not reply to emails and SMS messages requesting comment for this article. Sounds familiar? In a statement, envia denied that Kumar wrongfully took anything from NanoeXa. Finally, envia’s ‘communal relations’ firm said in an email, due to the extremely litigious nature of this case, I am instructed by counsel to provide no further comment, after some exchange emails.

While downloading the info from his work computer onto an external memory device, what Pak’s civil suit alleges is that, in venturing to this fresh chance, kumar took with him NanoeXa’s year of work on enabling NMC, in addition to its marketing technique. As reported by Pak, in essence, nanoeXa was the core source of Kumar’s product and entrepreneurship method for what was to proven to be Envia. In 2007 summer, for agesside Redpoint Ventures, another Silicon Valley firm whose earlier investments included Juniper Networks and Netflix. They sent Kumar a check for 500,000 so he and Sinkula could get going before quite a bit of the bucks worked through the funding setup. Known listening in was a Associated Press reporter, for a whileside somebody authorized to be on the conference call. As indicated by the report, we’ve got better in compare to a 50″ chance to develop a vehicle that will search for 200 miles on a charge, kerson said. That auto will be in GM’s fleet by 2016, he said and in case so it will be a game changer. The little entrepreneurs come out of nowhere and they surprise you, akerson said. Much precious development time had been lost. Envia had hoped for a ‘highprofile’ announcement that should push one or 2 various different carmakers with which they had been working to sign licensing contracts as a result. Kumar and Kapadia had hired Goldman Sachs to parlay the contracts to an entrepreneur sale or a IPO, as A123 had done 3 years before. In the end, the Envia board’s solution was to seek an acquisition by a great entrepreneur. Let me tell you something. The value under discussion was several hundred million dollars.

Given the stringent deadline, every week counted. On top of this, gM planned to delay publicly announcing the deal. Then, the carmaker rushed a planning team to Newark 3 months later on Dec. It should get 2 bucks million, as Envia hit every quarterly target. This is the case. By the next end fortnight, the 2 teams had decided. Nonetheless, the milestones were pretty tough, kumar said at the time. Ok, and now one of the most important parts. He was pretty lucky with the contract. Envia had arrived, after work 5 years. For example, the foundation stone was laid for big cash flow and a considerable fortune. I’m sure you heard about this. The board was delighted. It awarded newest stock options to 25 employees, about 45 percent of them to the 3 man biz team led under the patronage of Kapadia.

That’s right. Kapadia moved forward on the plan to sell the entrepreneur, while Kumar got started on the GM contract. While sending queries to as well as among another potential suitors, japan’s Asahi Kasei and South Korea’s LG and Samsung, goldman Sachs took the acquisition proposal to Asia. Anyways, now that Kumar had seemed on his means to what he had coveted, it all started to unravel.

I’m sure you heard about this. Right after February 2013, envia’s buziness development team got an urgent message from GM. Consequently, initial tests were complete on the 400 watt hour per kilogram battery. They did not replicate the results announced at ArpaCould Envia shed some light why, so far. Increasingly alarmed queries piled up from GM in call and meetings. The ArpaE results could not for any longer shot. Whenever meeting a team from the carmaker on March 4, kumar struggled to allay GM’s concerns, as pointed out by Kapadia’s lawsuit. GM was concerned.

In reporting this article, quartz begs Envia for the outside evaluation that underpinned its February 2012 claims for the ArpaE cell the one produced with the help of the US Navy’s Crane Division. For instance, envia sent a ’20 page’, subsequent Crane report that one and the other summarized ArpaE validation, evaluated and the earlier another same cell type, instead of that evaluation. Nonetheless, while as pointed out by this report, dated June 28, envia as well as 2012’s claim was correct its cell demonstrated renewable energy density of 378 to 426 watt hours per kilogram and had been put thru 409 chargedischarge cycles. So, the superlative renewable energy density registered solely in the 1-st 3 cycles. Nonetheless, its performance plunged, later. By the 25th cycle, the density was down to 290 watthours per kilogram. At the 100th, it was at At the 200th, it was below 250, and by the 300th at 237.

4 grams

You see, by the last charge discharge cycle the 409th the cell’s clean energy density had broken to 222 ‘watt hours’ per kilogram, or just 55 percent of the 400 that the startup had claimed. ArpaE cell that Crane Division had tested. This is the case. That renewable energy density should carry on falling and happen to be less than claimed half 400, the trend assumed no flattening out ahead. GM was not impressed. In a March head, matand accordingly Joshua, 2013, 14 and letter to Envia of purchasing for GM’s hybrid group, formally complained that the cell provided as contract fraction failed to meet the promised Arpa E performance and that Envia had misrepresented its technology. On top of this, joshua a performance explanation deficiency relative to the one announced specifically a year prior, kapadia said in a lawsuit.

On March the Envia, GM or 26 teams gathered for the 1st quarterly meeting of the newest relationship. GM’s team led with the help of Joshua and Larry Nitz, head of engineering for GM’s hybrids once more raised the enormous discrepancy between the stated and actual Arpa performance E cell. The Envia cell inexplicably could not match what the startup had announced. In any event, kumar responded with an offer when GM were patient for another 3 months, he was confident he could deliver the promised output. The GM team decided.

The Okay Battery Race

The performance was entirely the trouble beginning at Envia. Over the prior weeks, kapadia had turned out to be increasingly suspicious that the ‘Arpa E’ cell was in matter of fact not entirely the startup’s intellectual property as claimed. Now regarding the aforementioned reality. Kumar’s scientific team had raised that possibility the silicon carbon anode this scientist said, material and was purchased outside the entrepreneur and was not Envia’ Kumar said ShinEtsu’s role was unimportant the anode’s real value emerged in the processing steps he had developed that OK the anode to cycle a lot of times with no shattering. Doesn’t it sound familiar? As indicated by the lawsuit and Envia itself, shin Etsu. Was providing usually the significant material with which he worked. Kapadia disagreed. In case Envia said that the anode material was proprietary to the media or in the negotiation for its license with GM, as it had asserted to the market sector at conferences, it had to be so. Needless to say, in case it was somebody else’s freely reachable for purchase Envia had to explicitly disclose that reality. Matter of fact that the anode material plain, straightforward and was, not Envia’s intellectual property, said Kapadia. It didn’t even near it; with anything unlike the anode, the cell did not get to 400 watthours per kilogram. Envia was no better if compared with the crowd, and a ‘200mile’ electric auto practically wasn’t feasible.

With all that said. The dispute grew to a massive internal row. As pointed out by the lawsuit, kumar and at least one board partner a tiny Envia investor named Purnesh Seegopaul, a partner with Vancouverbased Pangaea Ventures were dismayed that Kapadia repeatedly committed his views to writing in messages to board members. Any future buyer of Envia imagine presumably need to be given such internal correspondence all along the due diligence process. Earlier in the year, the as well as Arun Majumdar ‘ArpaE’ director who had touted Envia’s reported breakthrough, joined the startup’s board of directors. Now regarding the aforementioned matter of fact. The previous year, he had left pure energy Department and joined Google. He was drawn to the discussion over ‘Shin Etsu’ as a result.

Yes, that’s right! While as indicated by Kapadia, seegopaul seemed less concerned about the anode’s origins than that its discovery could upset the chances for his venture fund to cash out. Seegopaul did not respond to an email from Quartz and Envia declined to reply specifically to the assertion about him. Herein, the board told Kapadia that his duties as CEO were henceforth narrowed he was solely to attempt to sell the firm and settle an outstanding lawsuit by Kumar’s former employer, nanoeXa’s Pak. Afterward, kapadia’s employment with Envia will terminate.

Kumar said in an interview at the time that his team was going crazy attempting to replicate the ‘ArpaE’ results. He eventually told GM about Shin purchase Etsu’s anode material. Nitz and Joshua said they in matter of fact did not for ages as Kumar delivered the promised cell performance, right after the news settled. Kumar continued to assure them that he will. Kumar told me that it was not a realistic aim in the timeframe required. In case GM was willing to settle for 315 ‘watt hours’ per kilogram, not 350 and the mark unless the carmaker could wait another 6 months or a year, he could meet not. Now regarding the aforementioned reason. Possibly the next year or the year later, the material will not be prepared for the 200 mile automobile that GM wanted to launch in 2016.

Generally, on July 2013, GM, 22 or even Envia met for their 2-nd quarterly meeting. That said, kumar had not met the milestones promised for the ArpaE material nor the 2nd generation 2015 Volt. That’s right. GM’s Joshua was blunt. As a result, kumar had made material misrepresentations in the process of contract negotiations, he said. The ‘Arpa E’ results were not replicated and the anode material is not Envia’ Nitz said Envia had earned a failed grade for this quarter. Now look. The coveted contract seemed to be in peril, kumar apologized. Nevertheless, 2 weeks later, envia received a letter from Joshua, who wrote.

Joshua continued, was and GM as a result well within its rights to terminate the December 2012 agreement. Sounds familiar, does it not? Envia’s executives and board now saw no chance to salvage the contract. This is the case. The deal that all hoped could lead to a substantial payoff was sure to be canceled. The fallout will be worse in case GM sued or demanded its back.

Besides, 3 months later, kapadia or his ‘twoman’ team filed the 52 page civil suit in Alameda County against Envia and Kumar personally alleging retaliation, fraud as well as wrongful termination. We were mostly trying to do what was right, kapadia said. The complaint got much from the lawsuit filed previous year by NanoeXa’s Pak. It’s a well the suits allege that Envia, while claiming to be marketing proprietary technology, in reason relied nearly entirely on IP that it either stole or appropriated with no attribution from additional businesses, when examined together. This is the case. In cathode terms, kapadia alleged that Kumar downloaded nearly 100 files at NanoeXa, and also a flurry in his last weeks and hours at the firm. You should take it into account. In an interview, pak put his hand on a stack of papers that he described as a peronal product forensic investigator who examined Kumar’s work computer. As a consequence, pak said he has shown the files to ministerial and Alameda County prosecutors.

The men have exclusive aims. Kapadia says he is seeking fiscal damages but that he will donate any award to an as yet unidentified charity. That said, pak says he is looking for punishment of somebody who did incorrect. For instance, envia has responded with big caution. You should take this seriously. It hired Sitrick and Co. Now look. Kapadia’s Sitrick said, is and lawsuit nothing more than 3 spurious allegations disgruntled former employees. Of course gM’s contract cancellation. To establish proof of conception, the Arpa E cell was under no circumstances intended for development to a product. Yes, that’s right! Following step was to turn the Arpa E cell to the RD cell stage and to, later as well as then produce the battery for TV infomercial use. Considering the above said. Envia purchased ‘silicon based’ raw material from multiple suppliers. This was done with full knowledge of Arpa- Sitrick said it should have no further statements.

Over Thai food with me 3 weeks after the fallout, kumar blamed the mess on Kapadia. At the time of the whole Kapadia, he said and as well negotiation had run a black box operation. Within his, envia as well as mostly Kapadia buziness team were privy to the GM details deal. The entrepreneurship team had committed Envia to unrealistic milestones and Kumar to an unattainable timeline. The chances for a IPO or an acquisition were likewise squandered. Of course you see the CEO on CNBC, when something gets achieved. You see, you blame the technology guys, kumar said, his arms crossed, when it goes incorrect. Now look. They get the commission, we get the blame. It’s usually like that.

Nevertheless, key elements of Envia’s and Kumar’s explanations contradict the record. Internal emails showed that Kapadia’s team checked the technological commitments and timeline with Kumar, who approved them. Of course, in Envia’s ArpaE announcement breakthrough on Feb. A well-known reason that is. Pretty, 2012, 27 or Kumar said than simply a proofofconcept of pure energy density, I am pleased that team was successful in virtually delivering 400 automotive grade 45 ‘lithiumion’ rechargeable cells. Matter of fact that the same news release spoke of Envia’s proprietary ‘SiC’ anode. Contrary to what Sitrick claimed on behalf of Envia, kumar was considering that he was prepared to develop his prototype to a TV ad product.

In canceling the contract, GM made it plain that it expected a product that will be put first-hand to the 2 vehicles. Of course, in a Aug. Virtually, gM said the contract was predicated on heaps of statements and representations made by Envia and Envia’s representatives that, in retrospect or in light of more latter statements by Envia, appear to were inaccurate and misleading. A well-known reason that is. GM executives will express enthusiasm add that they in no circumstances bet everything on a single technology, when Envia subject arose over the last couple of years. It’s a well the stakes are too lofty, they will say as well as assuming that the firm was not depending solely on Envia for the following generation Volt and the ‘200mile’ electric vehicle. That is rational. Virtually, that may be the matter of GM’s continued investment in the startup, GM’s Lauckner. Continues to serve as an observer on Envia’s board.

Virtually, the timing could slip. I’m sure you heard about this. Neither boasted the massive performance jump promoted under the patronage of the startup, envia in reality was pretty good firm at least publicly promising such exceptional performance since Envia, various different businesses along with BASF and Japan’s Toda had licensed the Argonne material as a result. Now regarding the aforementioned reality. Meanwhile quite a few next startup competition A123 and Ener1, enerDel parent firm declared bankruptcy in 2012 and were acquired, by Chinese, russian or respectively entrepreneurs. Notice that one will not be surprised to see the newest Volt possibly in 2016, with less of a price difference than nvia promised. The pure 200mile electric could launch in 2018 or later. It has suffered its 1st layoffs, as for Envia itself. Earlier this year it won a 3 bucks million Department for any longer with Stanford University and UC Berkeley, it will develop a newest battery with a siliconcarbon anode.

Sounds familiar, doesn’t it? Communal attention has seized on Tesla. Lofty tech Model S, musk has made electric vehicles an ad and Wall Street sensation, with his sleek. He has not revolutionized electrochemistry. Quite, musk’s vehicles are powered under the patronage of thousands of off the shelf Panasonic nickel cobalt aluminum cylindrical cells vague, large and heavy batteries that push the base price ‘200 mile’ Model version S to 71, they are a ‘designandengineering’ solution to the concern of making electrics competitive with cheaper gasoline propelled vehicles. You see, their price makes it far from peculiar that Musk’s approach will lead to ‘largescale’ consumer adoption, while sexy.

Ok, and now one of the most important parts. Over the last 2 or 3 Kapadia, years and Kumar themselves appeared to endorse the promise for their cell, too. The electric vehicle age was eventually here, they seemed to say. That said, the failure doesn’t necessarily mean that electrochemistry should not prevail. The winning formulation is still nowhere in plain view. Now please pay attention. Over the last 2 or 3 Kapadia, years or Kumar themselves appeared to trust the promise for the cell, too. The electric vehicle age was eventually here, they seemed to say. Their failure doesn’t mean that electrochemistry will not prevail. Hence, the winning formulation is still nowhere in plain view. The OK Battery Race. Kumar planns to create his own startup. You should take it into account. Revolutionizing the 2nd battery electrode. Breaking to GM. Canceling the deal. Sounds familiar, does it not? Life after Envia.

Kumar planns to create his own startup

You should take it into account. Revolutionizing the 2-nd battery electrode

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